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Photographer's Note

San Nicola in Carcere St Nicholas in Prison

46 Via del Teatro di Marcello / Via del Foro Olitorio

Church dedicated to St Nicholas of Myra, patron saint of sailors. History

The first church here was probably built in the 6th century, but the first certain dedication is from 1128, attested by a plaque on the church. It was constructed in the ruins of two temples and the ancient Forum Olitorium, and you can see fragments from them reused in the church. The most important of the temples was the Temple og Piety, built by Acilius Glabrius, consul in 191 B.C. The dedication to St Nicholas was made by the Greek population in the area.

'In carcere' probably refers to a tradition, supported by Pliny's history of Rome, that there was once a prison here, built in the ruins of the temples.

In the 11th century, it was known as the Church of Petrus Leonis, referring to the converted Jewish family who rebuilt the nearby Theatre of Marcellus as a fortress.

It was rebuilt in 1599, and restored in the 19th century.

The current titular deacon of the church is H.E. Zenon Cardinal Grocholewski. He was appointed on February 21, 2001. Exterior

The façade incorporates three columns from the Temple of Juno Sospita, built in the 3rd century BC. It was designed by Giacomo della Porta in1599, reusing the columns from the earlier façade.

The bell-tower is medieval, and was not changed during the 16th century rebuilding. It was originally a fortified tower, but when it was abandoned it was changed into a bell-tower for the church. Interior

Beneath the altar is an antique basalt bath containing the relics of martyrs.

On a fluted column near the door, you can see a 10th century inscription.

In the church, there is devotion to two cults of the Madonna; the Italian Our Lady of Pompeii and the Mexican Our Lady of Guadalupe. The chapel of the latter has a reproduction of the miraculous painting, sent here from Mexico in 1773. The feast of Our Lady of Pompeii is celebrated on 8th May.

The crypt can be visited on Thursdays, 10:30 a.m. to noon. Remains from the Temple of Juno Sospita, one of the very few known ruins of a Roman temple from the Republican period, can be seen there. The other temples were those of Spes and Janus.

Retrieved from "http://romanchurches.wikia.com/wiki/San_Nicola_in_Carcere"




Il Tempio Centrale
Al centro tra due templi, esattamente sotto l'attuale chiesa di S. Nicola in Carcere, si trova un altro tempio, probabilmente il più recente tra i tre che fu inserito da ultimo.
Il tempio il più grande (m. 30 x 15) era esastilo, periptero, di ordine ionico, con triplice fila di colonne sulla fronte, duplice sul lato posteriore.
Era su podio in calcestruzzo, preceduto da scalinata con altare inserito al centro.
I resti sono visibili nei sotterranei della chiesa, nei pressi dell'abside oltre alcune colonne nella zona anteriore.
Molto probabilmente il tempio era dedicato a Juno Sospita, Giunone protettrice delle nascite, costruito all'inizio del II secolo a. C. da C. Cornelio Cetego, rifatto all'inizio del I a. C. (fase a cui si riferiscono i resti visibili), ed ancora restaurato in epoca augustea ed adrianea.

Il Tempio Settentrionale
Il tempio ionico, il più settentrionale dei tre che anticamente erano nel Foro Holitorium, il mercato della verdura, è anche il meglio conservato; attualmente si trova sulla destra di S. Nicola in Carcere.
Era esatilo, periptero, sine postico; con triplice fila di colonne sulla fronte, un colonnato nei lati lunghi (ne rimangono sette colonne su un lato e due sull'altro), ma non nel posteriore.
Era di discrete proporzioni (m. 26 x 15), preceduto da gradinata.
Sorgeva su podio di media altezza in cementizio rivestito in blocchi di travertino, le colonne con basi e capitelli sono in peperino, l'architrave ed il fregio in travertino.Probabilmente il tempio era dedicato a Giano, il quale dalle fonti risulta "iuxta Theatrum Marcelli" (presso il Teatro di Marcello).
Costruito in età repubblicana da C. Duilio durante la I guerra punica, fu rifatto all'inizio del I a. C. (a questa fase appartengono i resti visibili), restaurato in età augustea, tiberiana e adrianea.
tnx wikipedia

Docarmo, evanrizo, Wanda1, Silvio1953, Mokina oznaczy³ to zdjêcie jeko u¿yteczne

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Additional Photos by Giorgio Clementi (Clementi) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3694 W: 437 N: 9370] (52514)
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